The Role of Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Arteriovenous Fistula Dysfunction – a State-of-the-Art Review

DOI: 10.2478/jim-2023-0016


Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred method of vascular access for patients with endstage kidney disease. However, excessive inflammation and inadequate remodeling of the venous component may cause intimal hyperplasia and AVF stenosis. This could lead to vascular access failure and an increased risk of mortality. Serum albumin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein, mean platelet volume, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic immune-inflammation index, interleukin-6, red cell distribution width, and fibrinogen have been identified as the most promising biomarkers in predicting AVF maturation and longterm patency. According to the 14 studies examined in this state-of-the-art review, with a total of 2,695 patients, NLR and PLR have shown the most promising prognostic role in terms of AVF outcome. Our findings indicate that systemic inflammatory indicators may be important in the development of dialysis-associated AVF dysfunction and warrant further evaluation of NLR