The Impact of Coronary Artery Calcification on Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes

DOI: 10.2478/jim-2021-0007


Decades of research and experimental studies have investigated various strategies to prevent acute coronary events. However, significantly efficient preventive methods have not been developed and still remains a challenge to determine if a coronary atherosclerotic plaque will become vulnerable and unstable. This review aims to assess the significance of plaque vulnerability markers, more precisely the role of spotty calcifications in the development of major cardiac events, given that coronary calcification is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. Recent studies have suggested that microcalcifications, spotty calcifications and the presence of napkin ring sign are predictive vulnerable plaque features and their presence may cause plaque instability.