Stoma-Related Complications: A SingleCenter Experience and Literature Review

DOI: 10.2478/jim-2022-0007

Introduction: The creation of an abdominal stoma is a common procedure performed by surgeons as a part of the treatment for benign and malignant conditions in general surgery. Stoma formation is simple, but sometimes the associated postoperative complications have an impact on the patients’ physical and psychological state. The majority of complications do not require reoperation, but when it is indicated, we have to assess the most appropriate option for the patient. Material and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in a single surgical center, the Department of Surgery, Mureș County Hospital, Târgu Mureș, Romania, using data from patients who have been admitted under elective conditions for stoma-related complications between 2005 and 2019. Results: A total number of 877 ostomies (653 colostomies and 224 ileostomies) were performed, and 157 patients (17.9%) developed some type of stoma complication and required surgical intervention. The mean age was 64.5 ± 2.1 years, with a male-female ratio of 1.3 to 1. The leading comorbidities included cardiovascular disease (52.2% of cases), obesity (22.2%), and diabetes (18.4%). Parastomal hernia was the most frequent complication (47.5% of cases), followed by stoma prolapse (23.4%), parastomal stenosis (20.3%), and parastomal infection (8.2%). There was an association between age and the type of complication: parastomal hernia, stoma prolapse, and stenosis were more frequent in the elderly; parastomal infection was more prevalent in young patients. A longer hospital stay was observed in case of parastomal hernia. Conclusions: Stoma formation is associated with significant morbidity. Typically, the complications appear in the elderly. Conservative treatment is essential, but some of the late complications,
such as parastomal hernia, stoma stenosis, stoma prolapse, and parastomal infection, require a surgical solution. Parastomal hernias are the most common complications, frequently associated with comorbidities and prolonged hospitalization.