Reproductive Health and Metabolic Parameters in Women with Type 2 Diabetes


DOI: 10.2478/jim-2020-0002

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study evaluated the correlations between metabolic parameters and reproductive health data in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Material and methods: In this observational retrospective study, data from the medical records of 324 adult women with T2DM attending their regular diabetes check-ups (i.e., anthropometric parameters at first outpatient visit and yearly thereafter, first recorded HbA1c and all HbA1c for the entire follow-up duration, as well as obstetrical/gynecological information) were collected and analyzed. Results: Age at the diagnosis of T2DM correlated positively with age at menarche (0.21, [95% CI: 0.09, 0.31], p = 0.0002) and age at menopause (0.18 [95% CI: 0.07, 0.29], p <0.01). Age at menarche correlated negatively with mean weight (–0.21 [95% CI: –0.31, –0.10], p: 0.0002) and mean BMI (–0.22 [–0.32, –0.11], p <0.0001) over the follow-up time. Patients with shorter time difference between age at menarche and age at onset of T2DM (≤45 years) had higher mean weight (83.8 ± 14.5 kg vs. 78.4 ± 16.0 kg, p = 0.0001), BMI (33.2 ± 5.6 kg/m2 vs. 31.8 ± 5.7 kg/m2, p <0.05), and HbA1c over time (6.9 ± 0.8% vs. 6.6 ± 0.9%, p <0.0001). Women with T2DM with earlier menarche (<12 years old), with irregular menses during their reproductive life, and ≥3 pregnancies had higher overall BMI, but mean HbA1c were not significantly different. However, women diagnosed with T2DM before menopause had a higher mean HbA1c over time (7.1 ± 0.8% vs. 6.7 ± 0.9%, p <0.01). Conclusion: The BMI correlated with several indicators of reproductive health (earlier menarche, irregular menses, and higher number of pregnancies), while earlier onset of T2DM influenced metabolic control in women with T2DM.