Drug-Induced Changes in the Gingival Tissue

DOI: 10.2478/jim-2023-0001

Introduction: Drug-induced gingivitis is caused by the administration of certain drugs such as hydantoin, calcium blockers, beta-blockers, cyclosporine, and oral contraceptives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modifications linked to drug-induced gingivitis such as changes in color, volume, and consistency, and the clinical signs of periodontal disease. Materials and methods: The study was based on a questionnaire made up of 14 questions, formulated using colloquial language to increase addressability. Results: The most frequently used drugs were beta-blockers (37%), calcium channel blockers (33%), followed by anticonvulsants (18%), oral contraceptives (8%) and cyclosporine (4%). Color changes occurred in 81% of anticonvulsant treatments and 57% of oral contraceptives. Increases in the gingival volume were higher with anticonvulsants (73%) followed by cyclosporine (67%). Gingival consistency was higher with anticonvulsant treatments (90%), followed by calcium channel blockers (60%). Gingival changes and gingival bleeding during brushing were higher with anticonvulsant treatments, followed by beta-blocker medication. Spontaneous gingival bleeding had a higher prevalence in anticonvulsant treatments, followed by cyclosporine. Conclusions: The patients most affected by gingival enlargement were those under hydantoin treatment, followed by cyclosporine. Calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers had similar effects on gingival pathology. The intensity of the pathological changes that occurred secondary to the administration of these drugs was influenced by the dose, the duration of the treatment, and the association of several drugs. Early detection and management of gingival enlargement is important in order to allow patients to continue with their therapy, and also to increase their quality of life.