Colorectal cancer is an important health issue, both in terms of the number of people affected and the associated costs. Colonoscopy is an important screening method that has a positive impact on the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. The association of colonoscopy with computer-aided diagnostic tools is currently under researchers’ focus, as various methods have already been proposed and show great potential for a better management of this dis- ease. We performed a review of the literature and present a series of aspects, such as the basics of machine learning algorithms, different computational models as well as their bench- marks expressed through measurements such as positive prediction value and accuracy of detection, and the classification of colorectal polyps. Introducing computer-aided diagnostic tools can help clinicians obtain results with a high degree of confidence when performing colonoscopies. The growing field of machine learning in medicine will have a big impact on patient management in the future.